A treatment that focuses on the application of external forms of energy either sound, light or electricity.

These forms of energy when applied at safe low doses can cause a change in your cells and tissue that is advantageous to healing.

  • TENS uses electrical stimulation to stimulate nerves. There are 2 types of stimulation that are set depending on the frequency of the signal.
  1. One frequency can excite nerves that will send a signal that will interfere with the signals that are relaying pain from the damaged tissue to the brain, and therefore reduce that pain signal.
  2. Another frequency will activate nerves that lead to the natural process of your pain relief chemicals that your body produces.
  3. Stimulate muscle activity in muscle that you are struggling to activate.
  4. TENS is useful in treating individuals who have a low threshold for pain.
  5. TENS is especially helpful in postsurgical cases where early movement is needed and after fractures.


  • Interferential machine is a machine that releases 2 simultaneous frequencies that interfere to produce a beat frequency which is the signal that will allow for an effect. This electrical signal stimulates nerve and tissue.
  1. This signal is set to allow for pain relief either at
  2. Muscle stimulation i.e. for muscles that need help to activate
  3. Increase blood flow
  4. Reduction of swelling


  • Ultrasound- part of electrotherapy but uses mechanical energy, sound waves causes vibration of tissue as well as heat. The absorption of the US energy by the tissue is more significant at the superficial tissue.
  1. This transmission of energy on damaged tissue enhances healing rate and quality of repaired tissue.
  2. Thermal- Continuous higher doses illicit heat and allows deeper tissue to be targeted i.e. ligaments tendons and fascia
  3. Non thermal- aims to provide micromassages (cavitation and acoustic streaming) which changes properties of cells to improve healing.
  4. Promote inflammatory i.e. maximise the efficiency by enhancing the different phases of inflammation
  5. HELPS – blood flow, breakdown adhesions, r/o inflammatory exudate